NASA has published new information about the space program Deep Space Gateway, which will be the preparation stage for the Martian mission. Under this program will be absorbed space around the moon where astronauts will build and test the system before starting the journey into deep space, including to Mars. They will be tested methods and robotic landing on the lunar surface.
The study of lunar space will begin with the first launch rocket Space Launch System (SLS) with spacecraft Orion. The three-week research mission is called Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) and will be unmanned.
The launch ma SLS is planned for late 2018. Orion will stretch its solar panels and headed for the moon. Further impetus ship will provide cryogenic engine Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), located directly below the ship.
The flight to the moon will take several days and at its end Orion can be disconnected from ICPS, which in turn will put in orbit around the moon several mini-satellites CubeSat. In 2020, NASA intends to fire one rocket a year under this program. Pilotiruem first flight has been announced for the month of August 2021.
The flight itself is based on translunar injection (TLI) - overdrive maneuver using the lunar orbit. Before starting, the spacecraft twice circled the Earth will gradually increasing speed, thus will be ready for TLI.
During his first mission, NASA intends to build in lunar orbit space port Deep Space Gateway, which will be a portal for studying the lunar surface and an intermediate stage in the flight to Mars.
Next step in NASA's plans is the creation of the spacecraft Deep Space Transport (DST), specifically designed to fly in deep space. His tests will be conducted over the next decade.