Hardware - essential components

Hardware (Hardware) is a concept, which means the hardware of the computer. The main hardware components,determining the capabilities of the computer system are locatedin a box (Case).

These include:
Motherboard (Motherboard or Main Board)

Motherboard (bottom) is a plastic sheet with electrical wires (tracks) that connects all components and devices. Depending on its parameters define the characteristics of the computer - the type of CPU, type and amount of memory and the ability to update (upgrade).

The motherboard is built around some very powerful information channel. These are buses that connect all the components to one another. The bus (Bus) is the set of wires for data transfer (via electrical signals). Each device is connected to one of the busbars. There are several types of rails:

FSB (Front Side Bus) - a high-speed bus used by the CPU for data transfer;

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) - basic input-output bus;

USB (Universal Serial Bus) - Universal Serial Bus. USB devices can be connected while the Computer work.

The motherboard is a chipset (Chipset), which contains the main set of controllers - a processor bus, memory, input and output, etc.. Kontorlerite are small electronic circuits that manage the flow of information from one device to another.The chipset serves as a bridge between the rails. It connects the processor and other components.

On the motherboard is soldered expansion slots through which direct mount component (eg sound card - Sound card, video card - Video card, Network card - LAN card or RAM

The place to which a processor is called a socket (Socket).The cap defines the type of processor which can be coupled with the bottom. Socket Socket 478 means that the processor must be 478 electronic contacts (pins).

The motherboard comprises a number of inputs and outputs, called ports, which connect to various devices. These include:

- Ports for keyboard and mouse;

- Serial (COM1 and COM2), paralelen (LPT1) and USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports.
By standard motherboard connector connects to the computer power unit, located in the box.
The power supply (Power Supply) converts standard mains voltage required to power the motherboard, processor and all other components.

Power supply unit is measured in watts (W) and is its most important feature. Since it depends on the power and number of components that may be included in the system.

Central Processing Unit (CPU - Central Processing Unit)

CPU instructions executed programs and processes all the data and ensure its transfer buses.

He has full control over all other components. In a computer can have multiple processors, but one of them is the chief - CPU.

The processor is a small integrated circuit containing millions of transistors, which is closed to a greater or a ceramic material made of an organic square pad. The larger size is necessary because there must be room for all electronic contacts (pins) used to connect the CPU to the bottom.

How a CPU is made

All processors have an operating speed (clock speed), which is regulated by a small crystal (crystal oscillator). The crystal vibrates constantly with great intensity in the second. With each stroke shock pulse is sent to the processor, each impulse leads him to make one (or more) tasks. The number of clock strikes per second is measured in hertz (Hz). Since the CPU crystal vibrates millions of times per second the processor clock frequency is measured in megahertz (MHz).

The number of bits which the processor can be transmitted simultaneously is called Number of digits. The first modern computers are built based on 8 bit processors, then appear 16 bit. The most common currently are 32 bit processors.Phasing in a new 64-bit processors. Expected onset of 128 bit processors.

Random access memory

RAM is a set of integrated circuits (chips). There are two types of memory:

ROM (Read Only Memory) - a non-volatile read-only memory.

In the ROM was recorded part of BIOS (Basic Input Output System) - basic input / output system.

BIOS performs the role of the boot loader, to diagnose all available hardware components.

Through BIOS manage and distribute work to drive into the computer before loading the operating system and drivers from the hard disk.

Furthermore, the BIOS settings are stored multiple resource management computer (keeping the system date and time information for the hard drive, memory settings, data processor initialization sequence of the devices, etc.)..

All information in ROM is inserted into the actual manufacture of the chip, then its content can not be deleted by the user.

RAM (Random Access Memory) - Random Access Memory.

It serves for the storage of dynamic information - currently used programs and data files.
The RAM is measured in megabytes (MB), and may be a multiple of 8 value (e.g., 32, 64, 128, 512 MB or more).

Speed ​​chip RAM is measured in nanoseconds (ns).

The most common types of RAM are:
SD RAM (Synchronous DRAM) - synchronous dynamic RAM, which works with the system bus;
DDR RAM (Double Data Rate RAM) - Memory double the speed of data sent two information packages for one working cycle;
Rambus RAM - transferring less information per operating cycle, but there are extremely high clock speeds.
In shutdown the entire contents of the RAM disappears.
Hard disk drive (HDD - Hard Disk Drive)
Programs and data are stored in the computer mainly on the hard disk. Hard drives allow storage of large amounts of data (measured their memory vGB).
Besides hard disk capacity (the volume of stored data) is important and it's performance, which is determined by additional parameters - interface number of revolutions per unit of time, etc..

Default location on the hard disk in the computer system box.In a computer can have multiple hard drives.

To save data to the hard disk using magnetic technology.

Keyboard (Keyboard) - a means of data input and setting commands

Mouse - the most common mice have two buttons and roll(scrolling - Scroll). By pressing the left mouse button states(selected) object, and by pressing the right mouse menuopens with the appropriate commands. Roller allows for easynavigation.

Scanner - used to convert images from paper into computerreadable image formats.

Microphone - Allows input audio signal;etc..


Monitor (Display) - primary output device, also called a display or screen. Managed by a video card that is installed on the motherboard. Video convert data from computer readable monitor signals. An important feature is its video card video memory (VRAM).

Modern monitors adhere to a standard SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array), which states that can display up to 16.8 million colors and a resolution of 1280x1024. Higher resolution determined by the quality of the image.

The screen size is determined in inches (1 inch = 2.54 cm).Modern monitors are size 15, 17 and 21 inches.

An important characteristic of the monitor's refresh rate (Refresh rate), which is measured in Hertz (Hz).

There are different types of monitors:

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) - monitors that reproduce an image through cathode ray tube;

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) - liquid crystal displays;

PDP (Plasma Display Panel) - plasma screens;

PALC (Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystal) - Plasma LCD monitors and more.

Due to their slimmer appearance, lighter weight and smaller power consumption, monitors using LCD technology displace CRT monitors.

Printer (Printer) - used to print the information on paper.There are different types of printers - dot matrix, inkjet, laser.

Speakers - beep from the computer.

Memorable - they are both input and output

Floppy disk (diskette) device (FDD - Floppy Disk Drive) -used for reading data from disks and recording data on them.

CD-ROM drive - used to read data fromCDs.

CD-RW drive - used to read data from CDs and write data on them.

DVD player - can be read-only or read-write. Using digital technology to record the data, which ensures better quality ofpicture and sound.


Modem - a device by which the computer converts digital data into analog and vice versa, thus using traditional analogtelephone network to communicate with other computers (withinternet). There are cable modems using coaxial cables.Modems are internal and extern

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